Tag Archives: Manuscript music

Published Manuscripts and Printed Ephemera

The Archive contains evidence of some ways in which notated music was reproduced and circulated outside the usual methods of printed publication and private manuscript copying.  Below are examples of “published” manuscripts and printed ephemeral publications, showing how music outside the larger music trade might be acquired, played, and heard by amateur musicians.

Schirmers Choice Manuscript Collection of Music was a quarterly compilation of music produced in copyist’s manuscript and sold by subscription:

Schirmers Choice Manuscript Collection of Music (London, circa 1806). First Number. Cover

Though the cover and title page were printed, the contents were in manuscript, copied by hand for each subscriber.  The Archive contains the first two issues; an advertisement pasted in the first issue gives the terms of subscription:

Schirmers Choice Manuscript Collection of Music (London, circa 1806). First Number. Advertisement

The publisher was Frederick Schirmer, who in 1805 had been licensed to produce “musical and dramatical interludes in the German Language” at the Sans Souci Theatre, originally built by singer and impresario Charles Dibdin.  Contents of Schirmers Choice Manuscript Collection of Music were composed or arranged by Joseph Wölfl (1773-1812), an Austrian pianist and composer. A former student of Leopold Mozart and Michael Haydn in Salzburg, Wölfl performed as a piano virtuoso in Vienna and other European cities, and composed opera, orchestral music, and music for solo piano. In 1805 Wölfl arrived in London, where he established a reputation as a pianist and composer before his early death in 1812.  Wölfl’s original contributions to Schirmer’s collections are music for amateur pianists, such as this rondo:

Schirmers Choice Manuscript Collection of Music (London, circa 1806). Second Number. Joseph Wölfl. Rondo

Though production in manuscript might seem to support inclusion of new or little-known music, most of Wölfl’s arrangements were excerpts from well-known operas, such as this German-language version of “Finch’ han dal vino” from Mozart’s Don Giovanni, composed in 1787:

Schirmers Choice Manuscript Collection of Music (London, circa 1806). First Number. Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus. Don Giovanni. Finch' han dal vino. German. Arranged for voice and keyboard

Or this excerpt from Nicolas Dalayrac’s Adolphe et Clara, composed in 1799, here in German with an English translation:

Schirmers Choice Manuscript Collection of Music (London, circa 1806). First Number. Dalayrac, Nicolas. Adolphe et Clara. German, with English translation

An example of printed ephemera is this keepsake version of a song by Gioacchino Rossini:

Rossini. Gioacchino. Arietta Con Accompagnamento di Piano Forte, Composed expressly for the Bazaar for the Foreigners in Distress (London: Lomax, 1833). Cover

The title page states that the music was printed in 1833 in support of a fundraising bazaar for The Society of Friends of Foreigners in Distress, a charity organization patronized by William IV and other members of the royal family:

Rossini. Gioacchino. Arietta Con Accompagnamento di Piano Forte, Composed expressly for the Bazaar for the Foreigners in Distress (London: Lomax, 1833). Title page

The music is Rossini’s song La passeggiata, for soprano and piano, composed in 1831:

Rossini. Gioacchino. Arietta Con Accompagnamento di Piano Forte, Composed expressly for the Bazaar for the Foreigners in Distress (London: Lomax, 1833). Page 1

Rossini. Gioacchino. Arietta Con Accompagnamento di Piano Forte, Composed expressly for the Bazaar for the Foreigners in Distress (London: Lomax, 1833). Pages 2-3

While the presence of this keepsake indicates the royal family’s support of the Society, other contents of the Archive show a wider interest in the music of Rossini.  Vocal scores dating from the 1820s are present for Rossini’s operas La Donna del Lago, La Gazza Ladra, Il Mosé in Egitto, Semiramide, and Tancredi.

Also in the Archive is this brief unbound collection of fourteen hymns for use by the chapel of Greenwich Hospital:

Relfe, Lupton. Hymns, Composed for the Use of the Chapel of the Royal Hospital for Seamen at Greenwich.... Print (London: Galabin, 1789). Cover

Greenwich Hospital served as a residence for invalid sailors of the Royal Navy, 1694-1870.  Contents of this collection include hymns for morning and evening, as well as special occasions such as Christmas, Easter, and “Founder’s Day.”  This hymn “taken from the 107th psalm” concerns a ship in danger:

Relfe, Lupton. Hymns, Composed for the Use of the Chapel of the Royal Hospital for Seamen at Greenwich.... Print (London: Galabin, 1789). Page 6

The composer of the hymns was Lupton Relfe (died 1805), an organist at Greenwich Hospital and father of pianist and teacher John Relfe (circa 1766-circa 1837).  It is not clear if this hymn collection was intended for use in Greenwich Hospital itself, or possibly as a way of making the composer and his music more widely known.  Though no other music by Lupton Relfe is present, the Archive does contain a copy of his son’s A Set of Grand Lessons for the Harpsichord or Piano-Forte, with the composer’s signature on the title page:

Relfe, John. A Set of Grand Lessons for the Harpsichord or Piano-Forte (London: author, undated). Title page

This work was dedicated to Princesses Mary and Sophia, two of the younger daughters of George III.  The Archive’s copy bears further evidence of the work’s association with the royal family: Lousia Cheveley, who served as a nurse to the young princesses and princes signed the title page and inscribed a preliminary page, dated 1784 June 7:

Relfe, John. A Set of Grand Lessons for the Harpsichord or Piano-Forte (London: author, undated). Preliminary page

An Astronomer’s Music Book

Caroline Lucretia Herschel (1750-1848), an English astronomer of German birth, was born in Hanover, in a family of military musicians.  In 1772, she moved to England, settling in Bath with her older brother, musician and astronomer William Herschel (1738-1822).  In England, Caroline Herschel pursued a career as a soprano, while studying mathematics and assisting her brother with his astronomical observations.  Brother and sister both eventually gave up music to pursue astronomy full time.  Following his discovery of Uranus in 1781, William was knighted and appointed court astronomer.  Caroline’s discoveries of nebulae and comets led to a salaried court position and recognition by the Royal Astronomical Society.  She continued her astronomical work after returning to Hanover following William’s death in 1822.  Her publications included Catalogue of stars, a reorganization of the star catalog created by John Flamsteed (1646-1719), first royal astronomer, and A Catalogue of the nebulae which have been observed by William Herschel

The Hanover Royal Music Archive contains a volume of manuscript music exercises and notes on music study kept by Caroline Herschel.  The volume, bound in full sprinkled calf with gold tooling, measures 29.5 by 24 centimeters and contains 92 unnumbered pages, included about 15 blank pages.  The volume is undated, but was written in English and was likely created after Herschel’s arrival in England and before her full-time work in astronomy, circa 1772-1781. 

Several sample images from the volume are shown below; images of the complete volume are available in Beinecke’s Digital Library.

Caroline Lucretia Herschel, Music book (Box 824). Cover

Herschel’s signature appears on the front pastedown:

Caroline Lucretia Herschel, Music book (Box 824). Front pastedown

Contents of the volume include elements of  music theory:

Caroline Lucretia Herschel, Music book (Box 824). Notes on clefs, key signatures, and fingering

Caroline Lucretia Herschel, Music book (Box 824). Notes on intervals

Caroline Lucretia Herschel, Music book (Box 824). Notes on tuning

Other contents reflect Herschel’s study of singing and keyboard performance during this period:

Caroline Lucretia Herschel, Music book (Box 824). Singing exercises

Caroline Lucretia Herschel, Music book (Box 824). Unidentified music for keyboard

Caroline Lucretia Herschel, Music book (Box 824). Notes on harmony and accompaniment, page 1

Caroline Lucretia Herschel, Music book (Box 824). Notes on harmony and accompaniment, page 2

 

Caroline Lucretia Herschel, Music book (Box 824). Notes on harmony and accompaniment, page 3

Caroline Lucretia Herschel, Music book (Box 824). Solfege exercise

Solfege exercises in the volume are incomplete; the exercise shown above is followed by 14 pages prepared with headings only, such as “solfeggio per gli dissonanzie,” “per la falsetta,” and “per la sycopatione.”  Clear and precise music notation and diagrams, all presumably in Herschel’s handwriting, seem to indicate a scientific approach to her music studies:

Caroline Lucretia Herschel, Music book (Box 824). Example chords and circle of fifths

Caroline Lucretia Herschel, Music book (Box 824). Conducting patterns and notes on music notation

Other contents show a lively sense of fun, such as these humorous catches:

Caroline Lucretia Herschel, Music book (Box 824). Catches

How did Herschel’s music book end up in the Archive among music books of the royal princesses?  Caroline and William had ties to the royal court through their official appointments as astronomers, but the possibility of a musical connection with the royal family is more mysterious, and may offer further insight into Caroline Herschel’s early life and education.

Orchestra music of Haydn and Beethoven

Among the most significant works for orchestra in the Archive are printed editions of symphonies of Haydn and an early copyist’s manuscript of Beethoven’s Symphony no. 1.  

Haydn, Joseph, (1732-1809). Symphony, H. I, 99, E-flat major (London: for the proprietor, undated). Part for first violin

Haydn’s Symphony no. 99 is one of his “London Symphonies,” nos. 93-104, composed for impresario Johann Peter Salomon and performed during Haydn’s visits to England in 1791–1792 and 1794–1795.  The early edition shown above is annotated in manuscript with a numbering designation used by the printer.  By “full band” the printer indicated a complete set of parts for Haydn’s original instrumentation: 2 flutes, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets, 2 bassoons, 2 horns, 2 trumpets, timpani, and strings.  Also present in the Archive are Salomon’s arrangements of the twelve London Symphonies for two violins, flute, viola, cello, and piano.  Salomon’s signature appears at the bottom of the title page: 

Haydn, Joseph, (1732-1809). Symphony, H. I, 99, E-flat major. Arranged (London: proprietor, undated)

A set of well-used volumes contains early editions of orchestra parts for Haydn’s Symphonies no. 97 and 100, as well as works of other composers.  Volumes are present for second violin, viola, bass, basso obbligato, flute, oboes, and horns. Some parts have manuscript additions or performance annotations, such as this bassoon part for Haydn’s Symphony no. 100

Haydn, Joseph (1732-1809). Symphony, H. I, 100, G major. (André, 1796). Part for bassoon

Accompanying the volumes are additional parts in manuscript for serpent and trombone, neither present in Haydn’s original instrumentation.  The serpent, a bass wind instrument named for its curved shape, predated modern valved brass instruments and was commonly used in 18th century military bands.  It is not clear why these parts were added.  As these instruments are typically present in sets of parts in the Archive, they may indicate the preferred instrumentation of ensembles employed at the royal court. 

Haydn, Joseph (1732-1809). Symphony, H. I, 100, G major. Manuscript in an unidentified hand. Part for serpent

Haydn, Joseph (1732-1809). Symphony, H. I, 100, G major. Manuscript in an unidentified hand. Part for trombone

Images of the complete set of volumes and additional parts are available in Beinecke’s Digital Library.

Another intriguing set of orchestra parts is a manuscript copy of Beethoven’s Symphony no. 1, part of music for the Duke of Cumberland’s band.  Beethoven composed his first symphony during 1799-1800, and the work was  first performed and published, in parts, in 1800.  The Archive’s copy, written in an unidentified hand, is on paper watermarked 1804, likely indicating early performances of the work.  As with Haydn’s Symphony no. 97, instrumentation has been altered by additional parts for serpent and trombone. 

Beethoven, Ludwig van (1770-1827). Symphony, no. 1, op. 21, C major. Copyist's manuscript. Part for first violin

Images of the complete set of parts are available in Beinecke’s Digital Library.

Music for the Duke of Cumberland’s Band

"Catalogue of Music for H. R. H. The Duke of Cumberland’s Private Band." Cover

Within the larger Archive of predominantly vocal, keyboard, and chamber genres, a distinct group of materials identified as music for the Duke of Cumberland’s private band contains hundreds of works for band and orchestra ensembles, dating circa 1790-1812.  The eighth child and fifth son of George III, Ernest Augustus held the title Duke of Cumberland from 1799 and became King of Hanover in 1837.  In his youth, Ernest Augustus attended the Universität Göttingen, received military training in Hanover, and served in the Hanoverian army during the period of the French Revolution and Napoleonic wars.  After his return to England, Ernest Augustus remained active in politics and the military, and was often seen as a controversial figure, drawing allegations of both political misconduct and personal scandal. 

The music of his private band reveals Ernest Augustus’s musical interests, and provides evidence of how works for large ensembles were circulated, adapted, and heard by audiences in private venues.  This material is an apparently intact group, consisting of complete sets of parts for performers, either printed music or arrangements in copyist’s manuscript, each in an original annotated folder.  Music is typically for an ensemble of clarinets, flute, bassoons, serpent, horns, trumpets, trombone, and timpani.  Some works include additional woodwinds, brass, or percussion, and some are for orchestra with strings, or for chamber ensembles.  Accompanying the music is a manuscript catalog, shown above, listing “Favourite Pieces for Playing” and “Military Music” identified by title, composer, and arranger.

"Catalogue of Music for H. R. H. The Duke of Cumberland’s Private Band." Sample page

Manuscript arrangements for band include works by major composers, both of previous generations, such as Purcell or Handel, and contemporary composers including Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven.  Among lesser-known composers, some are identified as musicians employed in the Duke’s band or in other private or military ensembles.  One example is John Collier, who is represented in the Archive by twelve compositions and arrangements.  Among his published works is this march and waltz composed for the Duke of Cumberland and dedicated to George IV as Prince Regent:

Collier, John. H. R. H. The Duke of Cumberland’s New March & Waltz (London: W. Milhouse)

Collier is identified as “Master of H. R. H. The Duke of Cumberland’s Band” on the title pages of several of his published works, such as this arrangement for band of a work by Ignaz Pleyel:

Collier, John. A Grand Sonata Dedicated to the Queen by Ignace Pleyel (London: W. Milhouse)

Original folders for music of the Duke’s band are headed “H. R. H. E. D. C.” (His Royal Highness, Ernest Duke of Cumberland) and a shelf mark.  The folder for Collier’s Pleyel arrangement includes an incipit of the work:

Collier, John. A Grand Sonata Dedicated to the Queen by Ignace Pleyel (London: W. Milhouse). original folder

Images of the complete set of parts are available in Beinecke’s Digital Library.

Among other arrangements by Collier is a version of Mozart’s overture to Le Nozze di Figaro for an ensemble of 2 flutes, 2 oboes, 6 clarinets, 3 bassoons, serpent, 3 horns, 3 trumpets, trombone, and timpani.  This set of manuscript parts is in an unidentified copyist’s hand:

Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus. Le nozze di Figaro. Overture. Arranged by John Collier. Part for first clarinet

Images of the complete set of parts are available in Beinecke’s Digital Library.

Manuscript music books

The Hanover Royal Music Archive includes twenty-four manuscript music books containing vocal and keyboard music for amateur study and performance, most kept by Princess Augusta (1768-1840) or Princess Amelia (1783-1810), both daughters of George III.  This example, probably kept by one of the princesses, contains minuets, songs, and marches in several hands, some with inscriptions dated at Windsor, 1787-1789.

 Several sample images from the volume are shown below; images of the complete volume are available in Beinecke’s Digital Library.

Manuscript music book (box 183, folder 944), cover

 

Among minuets and songs are pieces by composers associated with the court of George III.  Sets of six “Minuets for Her Majesty’s Birthday, 1788”  and six “Minuets for His Majesty’s Birthday, 1788,” were composed “by Parsons,” probably Sir William Parsons (1746-1817), who published a set of court minuets for George III’s birthday in 1794, with a dedication to the princesses.  Parsons is identified as “master of His Majesty’s Band of Musicians” on the title page of “Six English ballads, with an accompaniment for the harp or piano-forte” (1791).

“Minuets for Her Majesty’s Birthday, 1788, by Parsons,” cover

“Minuets for Her Majesty’s Birthday, 1788, by Parsons,” No. 1

The volume also contains excerpts from Italian opera.  This example is an unidentified work composed “del Sigr Vento” and performed by “Sigr Tenducci.”  Mattia Vento (1735-1776), an Italian opera composer active in London, composed a pasticcio, “Leucippo e Zenocrita,” performed at the wedding of Princess Augusta, sister of George III, in 1764.  Giusto Ferdinando Tenducci (circa 1735-1790), Italian castrato singer and composer, arrived in London in 1758, where he sang Italian opera and was a friend of Johann Christian Bach, music master to Queen Charlotte.

Unidentified music by Mattia Vento

Other music in amateur or juvenile hands includes:

A minuet for Charlotte Augusta Matilda, Princess Royal (1766-1828), oldest daughter of George III:

The Princess Royal’s Minuet, 1789

Military tunes, such as this music for the Coldstream Guards:

Troop for the colours of the Coldstream Regt

Music with dance instructions, including an early version of Yankee Doodle:

Yankey Doodle

And songs in German, French, and English, such as this example, indicating the popularity of national songs of Great Britain:

Donald, a Scotch Song