Instrumental Pedagogy

The Archive contains several pedagogical works for use in teaching and studying the playing of musical instruments.  An example is Bartolomeo Campagnoli’s Nouvelle méthode de la mécanique progressive du jeu de violon:

Campagnoli, Bartolomeo. Nouvelle méthode de la mécanique progressive du jeu de violon (Leipzig: Breitkopf & Härtel, 1824). Title page

Bartolomeo Campagnoli (1751-1827), an Italian violinist and composer born in Bologna, toured throughout Europe as a performer during the 1770s-1780s.  Campagnoli worked on his Nouvelle méthode for violin while serving as music director at the court of the Duke of Courland, Dresden, 1779-1797, and as leader of the Gewandhaus Orchestra, Leipzig, 1797-1818.  He completed the work in Hanover, where he settled in 1820 with his two daughters, who were pursuing careers as singers.  Published in 1824, the Nouvelle méthode was dedicated to Prince Adolphus, then vice-regent of Hanover.  Prince Adolphus (1774-1850), one of the younger sons of George III, became Duke of Cambridge in 1801, and served as vice-regent in Hanover from 1816, during the reigns of his brothers George IV and William IV, until his brother Ernest Augustus became King of Hanover in 1837. 

The Archive contains three copies of this work: two unbound as issued by the publisher, and one in a royal binding, dated at Hanover, 1823.  It is unclear why the date on the cover predates the publication date: possibly a copy was given early to a royal patron, or perhaps the date on the cover is incorrect.

Campagnoli, Bartolomeo. Nouvelle méthode. Cover

Contents of the Nouvelle méthode are in five parts, covering the elements of music notation and violin technique, with progressive exercises. 

Campagnoli, Bartolomeo. Nouvelle méthode. List of contents

These exercises, from part one, are in the form of duets for a student and teacher:

Campagnoli, Bartolomeo. Nouvelle méthode. Page 9

Explanations of performing technique are supplemented with illustrations:

Campagnoli, Bartolomeo. Nouvelle méthode. “Tab. II”

Campagnoli achieved more lasting success with his pedagogical works than as a composer.  His Nouvelle méthode  for violin was published in Italian, English, and American editions.  He remains best known for his 41 caprices for viola, op. 22, which are still in use by violists.

Who were all these princesses? Part I: Princess Augusta

As part of a household music library, the Hanover Royal Music Archive captures the musical interests of many of the fifteen children of George III and Queen Charlotte from the late eighteenth century through 1837.  The archive was created because of one of these children, and represents the musical library which went with Ernest Augustus, Duke of Cumberland, to Germany when he became King of Hanover in 1837, and which he continued to develop at the Hanover court.  The collection also documents the energetic musical life of the family household in England, whether in music notebooks, albums of printed and manuscript music, works dedicated and presented to members of the royal family, or the collection of the Duke of Cumberland’s band.    In particular, the collection helps to bring into focus the musical lives of the six daughters of George III:  Charlotte, Augusta, Elizabeth, Mary, Sophia, and Amelia.

Several of the princesses were musically active.  The collection is particularly interesting for its insight into the musical career of Princess Augusta, whose activities are documented from the 1780s through the early 1830s.  The collection contains several music notebooks signed by her, with manuscript contents in several different hands, and these indicate that she not only  played music at the royal household, but also spent considerable time thinking, discussing, and collecting music.  The albums contain corrections and drafts of music, showing her interest in the practical nuances and details of performed music.

The collection contains many works dedicated to Augusta.  In this, she can be seen as an active and influential patron of music in England, receiving letters, dedications, and presentation copies from composers.   Her notebooks contain works, in print and manuscript, by important English court composers like Johann Christian Bach and Charles Edward Horn, as well as many dozens of other less well-known composers, encompassing musical genres from hymns to sonatas to Scottish ballads.

Also visible in the Hanover Royal Music Archive are the relationships between the children.  Many volumes are inscribed to Augusta from her siblings: in some examples, Frederick Augustus inscribed an album of sonatas by Johann Forkel to Augusta in 1787, Augusta inscribed an album to her younger sister Amelia, and inherited one of Amelia’s albums from her brothers Ernest Augustus and Frederick on Amelia’s death.

Augusta never married, and remained in England until her death, at Clarence House, St James, in September of 1840.  The archive holds a tremendous amount of material relating to her musical interests, from the late 1780s through the 1830s.  As well as supporting research more generally in popular musical culture and the musical lives of households and the royal family in the period, the collection also offers the opportunity to focus on Augusta as a musical performer, consumer, and patron in England at the turn of the century.

Patronage of Theoretical Works on Music

The Archive contains several theoretical works on music that were supported by members of the royal family, either as dedicatees or subscribers.  These are typically works of musicians who also received patronage as composers and performers.  An example is Augustus Frederic Christopher Kollmann (1756-1829), who is represented in the Archive by compositions for keyboard and voice, An Introduction to the Art of Preluding and Extemporizing in Six Lessons for the Harpsichord or Harp, and An Essay on Practical Musical Composition.

Kollmann, Augustus Frederic Christopher (1756-1829). An Essay on Practical Musical Composition (London: author, 1799). Title page

Kollmann was born in Germany, where he began his career as an organist and teacher before serving as organist and schoolmaster at the Royal German Chapel in St James’s Palace, London, from 1782 until his death in 1829.  During his career in England, Kollmann published works in English on instrumental instruction, music analysis, harmony, and composition.  His Essay on Practical Musical Composition (1799) was dedicated to George III, who owned a copy of Kollmann’s previous work, An Essay on Musical Harmony (1796).  The subscriber’s list was headed by Queen Charlotte and included the Princess of Wales, the Duke and Duchess of York, and Princesses Augusta, Elizabeth, and Mary, as well as Charles Burney, John Peter Salomon, and other leading musicians.  Kollmann’s signature, indicating his ownership of copyright, appears on the title page of the Archive’s copy, shown above.

Kollmann, Augustus Frederic Christopher (1756-1829). An Essay on Practical Musical Composition (London: author, 1799). Pages 100-101

Contents address composition of fugues, canons, sonatas, and symphonies, and styles of vocal, instrumental, and national music.  Kollmann was influential in the revival of interest in J. S. Bach’s music in England; musical examples in the Essay include excerpts from Musikalisches Opfer and Die Kunst der Fuge.  Kollmann cited Haydn’s London Symphonies as a source for his ideas on the newer compositional forms of sonata and symphony, and the Essay contains an early description of sonata form.  In the section shown above, “Of Style and National Music,” Kollmann discusses music for church, chamber, theater, and open field, all genres well-represented in the Archive.

Imperial Waltz! Imported from the Rhine

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Fair Celia had some girlish Faults;
But then—How Celia stepp’d a Waltz!
And in that Season, it is known
Waltzing was everywhere the Ton.
Miss Caelia, though a sickly Maid,
No friendly counsels could persuade
To stay at Home, when Fashion’s call
Summon’d the Damsel to a Ball:
From Party, Opera or Play,
She might be coax’d to keep away.

William Combe’s tale of the poor dancing Celia, who “hop’d, her graceful Charms,  Would Waltz her to a Husband’s Arms,” was famously illustrated by the English artist Thomas Rowlandson with a scene of a girl whirling in the arms of a skeleton.  Combe and Rowlandson were not the first to celebrate the waltz’s gruesome charms, which in 1774 had also twirled the Young Werther, Goethe’s romantic hero, to his tragic love affair and fate.  The Hanover Royal Music Archive also holds a view of the waltz by Rowlandson in 1806, showing all the indecorous dancing and delight which had become the waltz’s scandalous trademark.   “See the waltz in page 3; and the account of it in the Xth letter of volume one of the Sorrows of Werter,” reads the caption, in case any of Rowlandson’s readers might have missed the scene’s romantic perils.

Waltz mania had struck England in 1812.  Byron’s “The Waltz: an apostrophic hymn” (1813) satirizes the dance’s popularity–and its wild adoption by the Hanoverian court, in the wake of the Regency Act of 1811.  “Blest was the time Waltz chose for her debut,” wrote Byron, “The Court, the R—t, like herself were new.” (Dyer 1997; Childers 1969).  As the gallery above reveals, waltzing played a central role in the musical life of the Hanoverian household, and particularly that of the Princess Augusta Sophia, who inscribed several volumes of waltzes in the collection and to whom several waltzes were also dedicated.   One album, consisting entirely of waltzes and other dances for two hands on the keyboard, is inscribed “Augusta, the gift of Charlotte” (OSB MSS 146, Volume 821).  A collection of William Rogers’s waltzes and other compositions, shown below, was published by Rogers’s daughter after the death of George III, and dedicated to Princess Augusta.  These and the images in the gallery above hint at the prominence of dancing and dance music in the Hanover royal family’s musical life, and represent only a selection of the dozens of albums of waltz and dance music–in print and manuscript, by British and Continental composers–to be found in the Hanover Royal Music Archive.

Imperial Waltz! Imported from the Rhine
( Famed for the growth of pedigrees and wine ),
Long be thine import from all duty free,
And hock itself be less esteem’d than thee;
In some few qualities alike — for hock
Improves our cellar —
thou our living stock.
The head to hock belongs — thy subtler art
Intoxicates alone the heedless heart:
Through the full veins thy gentler poison swims,
And wakes to wantonness the willing limbs.
Oh, Germany
! how much to thee we owe,
As heaven-born Pitt can testify below,
Ere cursed confederation made thee France’s,
And only left us thy d—-d debts and dances
Of subsidies and Hanover bereft,
We bless thee still — for George the Third is left
Of kings the best — and last, not least in worth,
For graciously begetting George the Fourth.
From Robert Byron’s “The Waltz: An Apostrophic Poem” (1813)

Works Cited
Childers, William.”Byron’s Waltz: The Germans and their Georges,” Keats-Shelley Journal 18 (1969): 81-95
Dyer, Gary. British Satire and the Politics of Style, 1789-1832 (Cambridge University Press, 1997)
Oxford Music Online (Oxford University Press)

Orchestra music of Haydn and Beethoven

Among the most significant works for orchestra in the Archive are printed editions of symphonies of Haydn and an early copyist’s manuscript of Beethoven’s Symphony no. 1.  

Haydn, Joseph, (1732-1809). Symphony, H. I, 99, E-flat major (London: for the proprietor, undated). Part for first violin

Haydn’s Symphony no. 99 is one of his “London Symphonies,” nos. 93-104, composed for impresario Johann Peter Salomon and performed during Haydn’s visits to England in 1791–1792 and 1794–1795.  The early edition shown above is annotated in manuscript with a numbering designation used by the printer.  By “full band” the printer indicated a complete set of parts for Haydn’s original instrumentation: 2 flutes, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets, 2 bassoons, 2 horns, 2 trumpets, timpani, and strings.  Also present in the Archive are Salomon’s arrangements of the twelve London Symphonies for two violins, flute, viola, cello, and piano.  Salomon’s signature appears at the bottom of the title page: 

Haydn, Joseph, (1732-1809). Symphony, H. I, 99, E-flat major. Arranged (London: proprietor, undated)

A set of well-used volumes contains early editions of orchestra parts for Haydn’s Symphonies no. 97 and 100, as well as works of other composers.  Volumes are present for second violin, viola, bass, basso obbligato, flute, oboes, and horns. Some parts have manuscript additions or performance annotations, such as this bassoon part for Haydn’s Symphony no. 100

Haydn, Joseph (1732-1809). Symphony, H. I, 100, G major. (André, 1796). Part for bassoon

Accompanying the volumes are additional parts in manuscript for serpent and trombone, neither present in Haydn’s original instrumentation.  The serpent, a bass wind instrument named for its curved shape, predated modern valved brass instruments and was commonly used in 18th century military bands.  It is not clear why these parts were added.  As these instruments are typically present in sets of parts in the Archive, they may indicate the preferred instrumentation of ensembles employed at the royal court. 

Haydn, Joseph (1732-1809). Symphony, H. I, 100, G major. Manuscript in an unidentified hand. Part for serpent

Haydn, Joseph (1732-1809). Symphony, H. I, 100, G major. Manuscript in an unidentified hand. Part for trombone

Images of the complete set of volumes and additional parts are available in Beinecke’s Digital Library.

Another intriguing set of orchestra parts is a manuscript copy of Beethoven’s Symphony no. 1, part of music for the Duke of Cumberland’s band.  Beethoven composed his first symphony during 1799-1800, and the work was  first performed and published, in parts, in 1800.  The Archive’s copy, written in an unidentified hand, is on paper watermarked 1804, likely indicating early performances of the work.  As with Haydn’s Symphony no. 97, instrumentation has been altered by additional parts for serpent and trombone. 

Beethoven, Ludwig van (1770-1827). Symphony, no. 1, op. 21, C major. Copyist's manuscript. Part for first violin

Images of the complete set of parts are available in Beinecke’s Digital Library.

God Save the King: a Gallery

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This gallery of renditions of “God Save the King” highlights a few of the many versions of the anthem to be found in Osborn MSS 146, the Hanover royal music library, and the tremendous variety of contexts in which it was set and performed.  In the Polish composer Karol Kurpinski’s Polonaise of 1819, it is linked with “Rule Britannia,” the national anthem written in 1740 by James Thomson and composed by Thomas Arne, and dedicated to the infant Duke of Cumberland, George Frederick Alexander Charles Ernest Augustus, later George V of Hanover.  In one of the printed editions shown here, dated to the Jacobite rebellions of 1745-1746, it becomes a “Loyal Song Sung at Both Theatres.”  A manuscript version, also probably dating to 1745, is set for two voices, in only one of the several arrangements of the piece.  Last, a printed version of October, 1809, marks the King’s Jubilee, and one of many performances and settings of “God Save the King.”

Music for the Duke of Cumberland’s Band

"Catalogue of Music for H. R. H. The Duke of Cumberland’s Private Band." Cover

Within the larger Archive of predominantly vocal, keyboard, and chamber genres, a distinct group of materials identified as music for the Duke of Cumberland’s private band contains hundreds of works for band and orchestra ensembles, dating circa 1790-1812.  The eighth child and fifth son of George III, Ernest Augustus held the title Duke of Cumberland from 1799 and became King of Hanover in 1837.  In his youth, Ernest Augustus attended the Universität Göttingen, received military training in Hanover, and served in the Hanoverian army during the period of the French Revolution and Napoleonic wars.  After his return to England, Ernest Augustus remained active in politics and the military, and was often seen as a controversial figure, drawing allegations of both political misconduct and personal scandal. 

The music of his private band reveals Ernest Augustus’s musical interests, and provides evidence of how works for large ensembles were circulated, adapted, and heard by audiences in private venues.  This material is an apparently intact group, consisting of complete sets of parts for performers, either printed music or arrangements in copyist’s manuscript, each in an original annotated folder.  Music is typically for an ensemble of clarinets, flute, bassoons, serpent, horns, trumpets, trombone, and timpani.  Some works include additional woodwinds, brass, or percussion, and some are for orchestra with strings, or for chamber ensembles.  Accompanying the music is a manuscript catalog, shown above, listing “Favourite Pieces for Playing” and “Military Music” identified by title, composer, and arranger.

"Catalogue of Music for H. R. H. The Duke of Cumberland’s Private Band." Sample page

Manuscript arrangements for band include works by major composers, both of previous generations, such as Purcell or Handel, and contemporary composers including Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven.  Among lesser-known composers, some are identified as musicians employed in the Duke’s band or in other private or military ensembles.  One example is John Collier, who is represented in the Archive by twelve compositions and arrangements.  Among his published works is this march and waltz composed for the Duke of Cumberland and dedicated to George IV as Prince Regent:

Collier, John. H. R. H. The Duke of Cumberland’s New March & Waltz (London: W. Milhouse)

Collier is identified as “Master of H. R. H. The Duke of Cumberland’s Band” on the title pages of several of his published works, such as this arrangement for band of a work by Ignaz Pleyel:

Collier, John. A Grand Sonata Dedicated to the Queen by Ignace Pleyel (London: W. Milhouse)

Original folders for music of the Duke’s band are headed “H. R. H. E. D. C.” (His Royal Highness, Ernest Duke of Cumberland) and a shelf mark.  The folder for Collier’s Pleyel arrangement includes an incipit of the work:

Collier, John. A Grand Sonata Dedicated to the Queen by Ignace Pleyel (London: W. Milhouse). original folder

Images of the complete set of parts are available in Beinecke’s Digital Library.

Among other arrangements by Collier is a version of Mozart’s overture to Le Nozze di Figaro for an ensemble of 2 flutes, 2 oboes, 6 clarinets, 3 bassoons, serpent, 3 horns, 3 trumpets, trombone, and timpani.  This set of manuscript parts is in an unidentified copyist’s hand:

Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus. Le nozze di Figaro. Overture. Arranged by John Collier. Part for first clarinet

Images of the complete set of parts are available in Beinecke’s Digital Library.

Englische Gesänge

The bound volumes of Osborn MSS 146 comprise several dozen albums of print and manuscript music, each usually with a spine title identifying the contents and sometimes also a cover title identifying the owner.   As well as compilations for particular media (“das Piano Forte,” “Vocal Music”), musical genres (“Walzer,” “Gesang und Tanzcompositionen”), and composers (“Pepusch, Purcell, Blow, &c”),  many of the volumes are also songbooks, classified by language.  Alongside the albums of “Italienische” and “Französ. u. Deutsche Gesänge,” we also find several albums of “Englische Gesänge.”

One of the songbooks, with the shelf-mark label used throughout the archive

What were the “Englische” songs, and in what ways were they English?   Many were simply in the English language; others were more discernibly infused with a patriotic culture.   Some were printed, others in manuscript.  In Item 830, an English songbook of mainly manuscript material, copies of often untitled songs dating to the 1820s or 1830s can be found alongside more elaborate pieces or individual poems set to music, as in the examples below of “Cowper’s Poem on the Loss of the Royal George at Spithead adapted to the March in Scipio,” dated August 29, 1830, or Dr. Green’s “Sing unto the Lord a new song,” dated January 22, 1829.

Popular titles are bundled alongside each other, at times attributed, at others not, in differing hands and on various types of paper.  One piece, a holograph setting by Johann Christian Bach, “The Expiring Christian to His Soul,” is annotated with the note, “Words written by Alexander Pope Eqr”; another hymn, “When the heart with sin & sorrow,” carries the note, “Words by Miss MB.”  The majority were either familiar, anonymous, or simply ephemeral enough not to merit attribution.

Others, like the “Anthem, Mr Handel” (Handel’s “Zadok the Priest” coronation anthem, above)–with its refrain of “And all the people rejoyced, rejoyced, rejoyced, and said God save the King long live ye King God save ye King may ye King live for ever amen amen Hallelujah Hallelujah amen”–were more explicitly patriotic.  Immediately preceding the Handel, a Purcell duet, “Let Caesar &  Urania Live,” with its own refrain, “Let all delights the stars can give upon the Royal pair descend.”

Still other “Englische Gesänge” were about the Scottish or Irish, as in this titlepage of a printed selection of Scottish songs, from Item 868.  Others, reinforcing the impression of the albums as indiscriminately bound bundles, simply weren’t English at all.

Why these songs, then, and not others?  There seems to be no clear answer: the albums, like the rest of Osborn MSS 146, formed that part of the Hanover household music library which went with Ernest Augustus to Germany, when he became King of Hanover in 1837.  The songbooks contain music at least through 1839, implying that they were bound after the move.   By whose selection, though, and with what principles–and in what haste, and with what degree of attention–remains unknown.

Printed Music in Bound Collections

In addition to hundreds of individual 18th-early 19th century music publications, the Hanover Royal Music Archive contains thirty-eight bound volumes of printed music for use by Queen Charlotte, her daughters, or other royal amateurs.  An example is this volume owned by the Queen, containing harpsichord parts for several chamber works:

Bound collection (box 837). Cover

The binding, calf with gold tooling and red leather label lettered in gilt, is a style shared by many similar volumes in the collection.  On a preliminary page are an ownership inscription and table of contents, written by Frederick Nicolay, the Queen’s music librarian:

Ownership inscription and table of contents

The first work in the volume is Johann Christian Bach’s Sonatas for harpsichord, violin, and violoncello, W. B 43-48 (London: Welcker, [1764]).

Johann Christian Bach (1735-1782), Sonatas for harpsichord, violin, and violoncello, W. B 43-48

Johann Christian Bach (1735-1782) was the youngest son of Johann Sebastian Bach.  He spent much of his career in England, settling in London in 1762.  The title page identifies Bach as music master to Queen Charlotte, a position which he held from 1763 until his death in 1782.  The sonatas are dedicated to Princess Augusta (1737-1813), sister of George III, styled Hereditary Duchess of Brunswick-Lüneburg after her marriage in 1764 to Carl Wilhelm Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick and Lüneburg, (1735-1806).

During the 1760s, Bach became well-established in England, where he composed Italian operas for King’s Theatre and with Carl Friedrich Abel (1723-1787), established the Bach-Abel concerts, the first public subscription concerts in London.  Other works in the volume are by contemporaries of Bach, most active in London during the same period.  Not listed in the table contents is Carl Friedrich Abel’s Six sonatas for harpsichord, violin or flute, and violoncello, op. 5 (London: Bremner, [1764]), dedicated to the Queen.  A German composer and bass viol player, Abel settled in London in 1758.  Along with Bach, he was appointed chamber musician to Queen Charlotte, circa 1764.

Carl Friedrich Abel (1723-1787), Six sonatas for harpsichord, violin or flute, and violoncello, op. 5

Among other contents of the volume are:

F. P. (Francesco Pasquale) Ricci (1732-1817), Sonatas for harpsichord, violin, and violoncello, op. 4 (London: Welcker, [1768]), dedicated to William V, Prince of Orange, (1748-1806).  An Italian composer, Ricci was appointed maestro di cappella at Como Cathedral in 1759, and traveled to Paris, London, and The Hague during 1768-1777.  Ricci and Bach apparently collaborated on a Méthode … pour le forte-piano (Paris, c1788), published after Bach’s death.

F. P. (Francesco Pasquale) Ricci (1732-1817), Sonatas for harpsichord, violin, and violoncello, op. 4

Gaetano Pugnani, (1731-1798), Six sonatas for harpsichord, violin or flute, and violoncello (London: Welcker).  Pugnani, an Italian violinist and composer, performed in concerts with Bach, and composed and conducted opera for the the King’s Theatre, 1767-1769.

Gaetano Pugnani, (1731-1798), Six sonatas for harpsichord, violin or flute, and violoncello

Felice Alessandri (1747-1798), Six concertos for harpsichord, 2 violins, and violoncello (London: Welcker).  Alessandri also composed operas for the King’s Theatre in the 1760s.

Felice Alessandri (1747-1798), Six concertos for harpsichord, 2 violins, and violoncello

Ferdinando Pellegrino (ca. 1715-ca. 1766), Six sonatas for harpsichord and violin, op. 4 (London: Bremner, [1763]).  An Italian composer, harpsichordist and organist, Pellegrino was  likely active in London, circa 1763-1765.

Ferdinando Pellegrino (ca. 1715-ca. 1766), Six sonatas for harpsichord and violin, op. 4

Images of the complete volume are available in Beinecke’s Digital Library.

The King’s Anthem for the Jubilee

A jubilee shall that fiftieth year be unto you: ye shall not sow, neither reap that which groweth of itself in it, nor gather the grapes in it of thy vine undressed.
Bible, King James Version, Leviticus 25.

Celebrations for the fiftieth anniversary of King George III’s reign began on October 25, 1809: to enthusiasts, the first time in over four hundred years that a British monarch had reigned so long; to critics, technically still only the forty-ninth year since his coronation (Colley 1984; Semmel 2007).  The term “jubilee”–of religious origin, from Leviticus 25, for the year of celebratory emancipation or penal remission to be observed every fifty years–was widely used in early modern Britain, from the literature of radical political reformers to David Garrick’s “Great Shakespeare Jubilee” at Stratford-upon-Avon in 1769 (Chase 1990).  The publications and festivities surrounding the King’s Jubilee drew on these two meanings, provoking applause and criticism from loyalists and radicals in the newspapers, pamphlets, poetry, songs, and performances which marked the occasion in towns and cities across the realm.

Like their subjects, the Hanover royal family also read and collected the literature of the King’s Jubilee.  Shown here are two examples of the popular ephemeral literature surrounding the event: the printed sheet music to “God Save the King,” from an album of printed and manuscript music in Osborn MSS 146 (Beinecke call number: OSB MSS 146, Item 868), and “The Character of the King, or, Royal Jubilee. Interspers’d with authentic anecdotes of His Majesty,” an anonymous pamphlet owned by Ernest Augustus, the Duke of Cumberland (Beinecke call number: 1976 644).

The “King’s Anthem” itself, or “God Save the King,” was both an icon of the patriotic fervour for George III and the territory of radical commentators, who continued–as they had in Scotland for the Young Pretender, in the Jacobite uprising of 1745–to colonize the song for political protest (Branham 1999).  For many of the subjects of George III, this example of “God Save the King,” from the bound volumes of Osborn MSS 146, might also have evoked the “Jubilee Hymn” of the political radical Thomas Spence, sung to the same tune, and calling on its readers and listeners to proclaim “the perfect Rights of Man, true Common Sense.  Now hath the Oppressor ceas’d, and all the World releas’d, from Misery” (Spence 1807).

Sources Cited
Branham, Robert James. “‘God save the —!’ American National Songs and National Identities, 1760-1798,” Quarterly Journal of Speech 85 (1999): 17-37.
Chase, Malcolm. “From Millenium to Anniversary: The Concept of Jubilee in Late Eighteenth- and Nineteenth Century England,” Past & Present 129 (1990): 132-147.
Colley, Linda. “The Apotheosis of George III: Loyalty, Royalty, and the British Nation 1760-1820,” Past & Present 102 (1984): 94-129.
Semmel, Stuart. “Radicals, Loyalists, and the Royal Jubilee of 1809,” Journal of British Studies 46 (2007): 543-569.
Spence, Thomas. The Jubilee Hymn.  To be Sung an hundred Years hence, or sooner. London: Seale & Bates, [1807].